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These equations are some of the most frequently used on a typical jobsite.

Pythagoras Theorum

This equation is the root of most construction mathematics. It uses are virtually unlimited. It is commonly used to square a layout via the 3 4 5 method, and roof framing would be nothing but guessing without this equation.
pyth (4K)
A2+B2= C2
It is also common to see the equation wrote like this: Hypotenus (C) = SquareRoot(A2 + B2)

Radius Equation

This formula can be used to find the radius of any simple arch. It is a common occurrance for homes we build to have arched cased openings, arched windows, or arched ceilings.
Radius = ((1/2S)2+R2)/2R
radformula (9K)

Octagon side formula

This equation is commonly used to calculate the octagonal sides of trey ceilings or to find the chamfer length on a cabinet.
Octformula (19K)
H = squrt((1/2R)2+(1/2R)2)
O = R - H
S = squrt(O2+O2)

Angle of Departure

This equation is used to find the departure angle for rafters and other structures built on an angle. The formula is quite simple but having a scientific calculator on hand is necessary.
Angle of departure from horizontal = arctan(Rise/Run)
Angle of departure from vertical = arctan(Run/Rise)